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The Federalist Papers

Initially published in three New York newspapers, the Federalist Papers are 85 essays written between October 1787 and May 1788. They were composed by three different authors: Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison, all under the single anonymous pseudonym ‘Publius’. In these essays, Publius argues for approval of the United States Constitution, which had been sent to the states for ratification in the Fall of 1787. Today, these essays serve as a primary source for the interpretation of the United States Constitution. These essays are all narrated here, included as one of the greatest things ever to appear in American newspapers.

1 – General Introduction

2 – Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence

3 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence

4 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers From Foreign Force and Influence

5 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence

6 – Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States

7 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States

8 – The Consequences of Hostilities Between the States

9 – The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection

10 – The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection

11 – The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy

12 – The Utility of the Union In Respect to Revenue

13 – Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government

14 – Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered

15 – The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union

16 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union

17 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union

18 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union

19 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union

20 – The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union

21 – Other Defects of the Present Confederation

22 – The Same Subject Continued: Other Defects of the Present Confederation

23 – The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union

24 – The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered

25 – The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered

26 – The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered

27 – The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered

28 – The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered

29 – Concerning the Militia

30 – Concerning the General Power of Taxation

31 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation

32 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation

33 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation

34 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation

35 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation

36 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation

37 – Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government

38 – The Same Subject Continued, and the Incoherence of the Objections to the New Plan Exposed

39 – The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles

40 – The Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined and Sustained

41 – General View of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution

42 – The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered

43 – The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered

44 – Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States

45 – The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments Considered

46 – The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared

47 – The Particular Structure of the New Government and the Distribution of Power Among Its Different Parts

48 – These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other

49 – Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government by Appealing to the People Through a Convention

50 – Periodic Appeals to the People Considered

51 – The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments

52 – The House of Representatives

53 – The Same Subject Continued: The House of Representatives

54 – The Apportionment of Members Among the States

55 – The Total Number of the House of Representatives

56 – The Same Subject Continued: The Total Number of the House of Representatives

57 – The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many Considered in Connection with Representation

58 – Objection That The Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands Considered

59 – Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members

60 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members

61 – The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members

62 – The Senate

63 – The Senate Continued

64 – The Powers of the Senate

65 – The Powers of the Senate Continued

66 – Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for Impeachments Further Considered

67 – The Executive Department

68 – The Mode of Electing the President

69 – The Real Character of the Executive

70 – The Executive Department Further Considered

71 – The Duration in Office of the Executive

72 – The Same Subject Continued, and Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered

73 – The Provision For The Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power

74 – The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power of the Executive

75 – The Treaty Making Power of the Executive

76 – The Appointing Power of the Executive

77 – The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered

78 – The Judiciary Department

79 – The Judiciary Department Continued

80 – The Powers of the Judiciary

81 – The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority

82 – The Judiciary Continued

83 – The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury

84 – Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered

85 – Concluding Remarks